STATUS: The emission free Green Revolution Energy Converter LAB-Model

Tip: Click on the underlined links in the text to get more info!

27/5 2024 Exciting GREC project report from Linköping University confirming proof of concept with experimental results from their small LabModel v3. Please read the Report summary .
This physical LabModel v3 also verifies earlier technologists' GREC projects, and the report presents results including:
• Pressure Integrity: The model achieved a pressure-tight seal, confirming that the internal pressure is consistent throughout the GREC.
• Power Output: Though the power output is modest, it demonstrates proof of concept. Future work is needed to scale the model and optimize power extraction methods.
• Innovative Use of Components: Successfully used a small tweeter as a linear generator, suggesting potential for using bass speaker elements for electricity generation.
• Repeatable Tests: All tests provided with formulas and results that allows for extrapolation for larger heat-gradients, larger Work Generating Volumes and faster revolving speeds.
The report challenges the reader to extrapolate the potential performance of a full-sized prototype.

Putting it all together at Linköping University Sweden, the steps includes:
• The 2022 spring project (done)
- Theoretical proof of concept with:
• Calculations in MATLAB
• Material analysis
• Thermal simulations.

Autumn project groups 2022 (done)
• Internal heat transfer research
• External heat transfer research

Spring project 2023 (done)
• The new Lab Model v.3 was constructed

Spring project 2024 (done)
• Preparing Lab Model v3 for "sharp" test series
• Revolve it's WGV at different speeds while logging of parameters
• Present their results with reliable extrapolations for different prototype cases.

• Scaling an intermediate prototype for industrial applications
• Scaling a prototype for high temperature gradient solar applications
• Exploring advanced methods for power extraction
• Study prototype case scenarios with end users and manufacturers in appropriate markets

The old GREC Lab Model v2 is put on hold and will be exhibited at a very approriate Swedish museum.

The list below contains some links to explaining texts and images. Just click on the link to get more information.
On top of each explaining link there is a small navigator that allows you to jump in the list between the explaining texts and images. By clicking on the Home icon (the house symbol) you will come back to this page.

4/4 2024 A GREC LabModel v3 breakthrough was achived by a candidate group, Erik Widström, Simon Eriksson and Richard Zetterman, at Linköping University.
- The RPi3 configuration with two Arduinos and sensors on I2C bus is able to logg data
- The stepper motor is mounted on Lab-Model v3 which is reasonably tight
- The speed of the WGV in the Revolving-Shutter is controlled via the Internet with the HTML User Interface at the IP address
They are now able to revolve the motorised WGV for experiments in speeds up to 3Hz with logging of pressure.
Their success rests on earlier research in well-documented GREC Sustainable projects delivered by motivated, succesfull Technologist groups with dedicated supervisors at Linköping University, Sweden, world leaders in Sustainable Revolving Carnot Technology.

18/1 2024 A candidate group with Erik Widström, Simon Eriksson and Richard Zetterman will use the Linköping University GREC Lab-Model v.3 for experiments. Their goal is to obtain a tight enough LabModel with a motorised revolving "Work Generating Volume" (WGV) and to be able to revolve this WGV at different speeds while logging pressure and average temperatures from the hot and the cold side and present their results with reliable extrapolations for much larger volumes.

17/7 2023 Heat and Pressure test of LabModel v3 with revolving WGV
At nilsinside AB in Motala a heat and pressure test of the LabModel v3 was done with a temperature gradient of 55°C at 99 940 Pa ambient pressure. Revolutions at approximately 1Hz (60RPM) resulted in a maximum pressure of 100 751 Pa and a minimum pressure at 99 490 Pa delivering an average pressure difference ΔP at 1 249 Pa.

11-12/7 2023 Pressure test of the GREC LabModel v3 with revolving WGV
After adjusting and sealing the Green Revolution Energy Converter LabModel v3, constructed at Linköping University during spring 2023, it was pressure tested using lungs and a plastic tubing.
The LabModel v3 was operated using the Mechatronics group software "Kombinerad_kod.ino" with WGV revolution at 2 Hz (120 RPM) and first test was without any temperature difference between the heat conducting sides.
Lab Model v3 finally appears to be without disturbing friction and also fairly tight.

6/6 2023 Sustainable Revolution Part 3 project at Linköping University (Li.U) - Assembly
The Green Revolution Energy Converter (GREC) Sustainable Research Project Part 3 at Linköping University assembled their physical model, the GREC Lab Model v.3 with the aim of obtaining real data from the GREC Work Generating Volume (WGV) and relating its performance to the Linköping documented theory of the GREC.

The project goal was to, within the specified time frame, build a simple and completely tight model to deliver real physical data.
Unfortunately the GREC Lab Model v3 was not fully assembled at the project presentation, but efforts were made after the presentation to make a tight assembly and to confirm with some test spins.
In this writing moment, leaks are still present to the extent that it is impossible to get any pressure differences during test running.
We trust that this new Lab Model Version 3 will get tight and perform in future test runs to deliver real world data for extrapolation to much larger volumes.

24/5 2023 Sustainable Revolution Part 3 at Linköping University (Li.U) - Project Presentation
All nine members of the three new GREC groups CONSTRUCTION, THERMODYNAMICS and MECHATRONICS held a joint introduction to their common project presentation of the Green Revolution Energy Converter "GREC". A talented and well-read opposition group also showed up for the presentation.
As flagged by the University Workshop, the construction time was very tight so their GREC construction was not fully assembled and no tests had been done. A half assembly of the GREC with its counterweighted Work Generating Volume "WGV" was on display on the podium.
We trust that this new Lab Model Version 3 will perform in future test runs and deliver measurement results for extrapolation to much larger volumes.

27/3 2023 Sustainable Revolution Part 3 at Linköping University (Li.U) - Started
During spring 2023 a new group of nine candidates plan to build Lab-Model v.3 of the Green Revolution Energy Converter (GREC). This research will probably answer several unknown crucial questions.
The work is divided into three parallel sub-projects/subject areas:
• CONSTRUCTION, Ida, Andrei and Simon
• THERMODYNAMIC Vidar, Jakob and Johan
• MECHATRONIC Oskar, Lisa and Max

17/10 2022 Sustainable Revolution Part 2 at Linköping University (Li.U) - Half Time Presentation
Members of the two GREC groups started with a joint introduction of their half time presentation overview.
This included a brief presentation of the Revolving Work Generating Volume technology, its scalability, some application examples even with small temperature gradients.
The GREC Internal Heat Transfer Group (IHT: Johan Hagströmmer, Mattias Reijm, Oscar Torsteinsrud and Vendela Stenholm) continued the presentation explaining their exiting challenges and their findings so far.
The GREC External Heat Transfer group (EHT: Emma Gustafsson, Maja Abrahamsson Bolstad, Matilda Eriksson, Wilma Fager, Emma Andersson) followed with their presentation explaining their challenges interfacing external energy storages to the GREC Work Generating Volume.

6/9 2022 Sustainable Revolution Part 2 at Linköping University (Li.U) - Succesful Take Off
The GREC Lab Model 2.0 does a second arrival at Linköping University by car from Brassac.
Nine (9!) technologists at Linköping University are dedicated to follow up on the GREC project with a second part where they will do research in two important unexplored areas:
1) the external heat transfer and
2) the Revolving-Shutter WGV dynamics
Goal of part2 includes designs and drawings that can be used for future research and prototypes. This will allow for fundamental cost analysis and key application evaluations for the GREC in a span of future market sectors where the GREC will deliver scalable, controllable, emission free power.
Research in our aim to advance the GREC project on the "Technology Readiness Level" scale as a component in many future "Climate-Positive Energy Systems".

19/4 2022 Publication at Linköpings Universitet - Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet
- Theoretical Proof Of Concept For The Green Revolution Energy Converter

Authors of the publication are Gustav Edholm, John Malmdal, Lukas Haglund, Markus Eriksson and Oscar Magnusson.
Student thesis, 12 HE credits
Abstract [en]
The GREC is a new type of renewable heat engine that challenges the current dominating combustion engines. By using renewable energy the GREC offer a theoretical high efficiency, possibilities for large scalability and a high power output. The GREC could therefore be a step into a better future regarding energy production without consumption of fossil fuel. The report has the aim to further develop the fundamental technology and present a theoretical proof of concept of the GREC engine. This was performed by establishing a mathematical model in order to produce realistic results in terms of performance. As well as material analyses and construction improvements of crucial parts for future physical models. The mathematical model was constructed with the help of the fundamental principals of the Carnot-engine. With this in mind the development of the mathematical model was formed by stating necessary thermodynamic assumptions, equations and simplifications that focused on the heat transfer within the engine. The material analysis focused on performing thermal and stress simulations on selected parts with sought out material properties that would benefit the efficiency for the GREC. With the use of a scaled Six Sigma quality approach future construction improvements could be pinpointed and thereby give guidance to future work. Results show that the GREC theoretically benefits performance-wise by being constructed in larger scales and with higher temperature differences between two heat reservoirs. Change of construction materials also show increased performance, for example using bakelite for isolation. The found construction improvements using Six Sigma across the physical model show that a path to a solution of the problem could be pinpointed. This will also contribute to GRECs development when solved.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages 2022. National Category Energy Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-184199
DiVA, id: diva2:1650332
External cooperation: nilsinside AB, Karlberg, Nils
Examiners: Renner, Johan
Available from: 2022-04-19 Created: 2022-04-06
Bibliographically approved
For future research in our goal to advance the project on the "Technology Readiness Level" scale, we are on our way to prove the "Climate-Positive Green Revolution Energy Converter".

11/2 2022 The GREC Lab Model 2.0 arrives at LINKÖPING UNIVERSITY
The complete GREC Lab Model version2 set-up arrives at Linköping University (Li.U) by car from Brassac. Li.U has provided a project space where the five in the GREC group at Li.U have a large meeting table with chairs, a whiteboard and a perfect lab table. Assembly starts immediately and the GREC group loads the lab table with the GREC lab model, screen with keyboard and the chineese document portfolio with the bird's nest of electronics and wiring.
A brief overview of how and where to start the DynymicLink software is held. At startup the logging results are of the bizarre kind and the stepper motor makes awkward, creepy noises. The GREC group now becomes the GREC team (Wow!) and starts an active and intensive troubleshooting that identifies bad connections and a broken stepper motor driver (drv8825). It does not take long before the lab model is performing as expected again. Applause for the GREC team!
The Li.U GREC team has already prepared and built a 3D CAD model (Creo) and is well advanced in setting up a MATLAB model. Both very impressive foundations for future research in our goal to advance the project from the "Valley of Death" situation on the "Technology Readiness Level" scale. We are on our way to prove the "No CO2 Revolution Energy Converter".

27/8 2021 Releasing a technical presentation of the GREC Lab Model 2.0
Using a Lab-Model version 2 schematic Carnot diagram like the one you find on Wikipedia, we explain the GREC Lab Model 2.0 in a setup between a hot and a cool storage. The GREC is a closed system with a moving boundary that converts a temperature difference to mechanical work and kinetic energy.
An electric motor revolves a disk containing a pizza sliced "Work Generating Volume" of gas.
The revolving gas generates pressure pulses by repetitively
- heating up, turning red, and
- cooling down, turning blue.
In future optimised application prototypes these pressure variations will produce significantly more power than the electric motor consumes.
The aim of the GREC Lab Model design is to study the impact of variations of the variables the concept. Figuring out why simulations and reality differs. The GREC would, of course, have looked totally different if we would have built a power production prototype, but there are still many variables to study before starting building adapted application prototypes.

8/6 2021 A turning Revolving Shutter Contolled by the Revolution Dynamic Link Soft Ware.
The DynamicLink software with stepper motor is now able to move the Revolving Shutter again. There are still zones with friction that we have to find and grind down, but now it is at least revolving in slow speeds with tight steps and high torque.
We loaded our car with the full set-up and travelled north on a tour to present and also to continue our development. We will show:
A.) The physical GREC Lab-Model version 2 with its Dynamic Link SW, how it is built and why it is built the way it is.
B.) The computer 3D model geometry (available in different file formats) that facilitates future computer aided simulations like Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and others.

22/3 2021 New Revolving Shutter
Optimism with new polyuretane(?) Revolving Shutter in place. The measures along the shaft are still not right so we still have friction. Fitted with plastic reinforcement at both ends that keeps the two disks together with 4 bolts.

6/9 2020 Two Tests
Test 1: Verifying thermistor chain and conducting hot fin heat transport.
Using candles at heat source in an open Green Revolution Energy Converter with a locked Revolving Shutter we confirmed our heat transfer expectations. Click this link to dive into the set up and conclusions of this experiment.
The two disk Revolving Shutter is parked in a position with the Work Generating Volume opening standing still in a "Nil-position".
Test 2: Verifying thermistor chain logging dynamic heat transfer.
Still using candles as a heat source and now turning the Revolving Shutter with an electric screwdriver we confirmed our heat transfer expectations.

10/8 2020 Testing the complete GREC LAB-Model v.2 system in an experimental solar setup just outside FabLab. Solar vacuum tubes as heat source and a fresh running stream as cold sink. Unfortunately the collected data logs did not make any sense at all. We later found out that this was due to humidity leaking into the work generating volume upsetting the thermistor slings.
There will be more sunny days...

8/8 2020 Successful mounting of the thermistor Sensors in the mid-layer fins.

11/6 2020 Cutting counterweight holes at FabLab.

26/5 2020 Recalculation of the whole model. Higher accuracy needed?

30/4 2020 Recalculation dead volume percentage of the actual LabModel

30/3 2020 Trimming of the Revolving Shutters with all layers assembled. Counterweights needed.

10/3 2020 Debugging DynamicLink in Sweden and rushed back to Brassac just in time before the Corona closing of borders..

21/2 2020 Salisbury, England, programming and soldering the DynamicLink card to replace some of the spaghetti in th "Briefcase" setup

15/2 2020 Adjusting the distance between the middle fins and the Revolving Shutter. Quite a lot of friction as indicated by the sketch and the photos.

5/2 2020 Adjusting the distance between the upper endplate and the Revolving Shutter. Revolving Shutter distance is quite OK to the upper end plate side. Minor adjustments are needed

1/2 2020 Adjusting the distance between the lower end-plate and the Revolving Shutter. Revolving Shutter is in friction with the conducting fins of the lower end plate at their peripheral surfaces

16/11 2019 High precision glueing of the shell layers on to the end plates to prevent gas leakage. This was not easy. We had to try several times with soft silicon for the nil-parts and a home made thermal paste with graphite for the conducting alu parts

28/10 2019 Glueing of the second Revolving Shutter disk. The GREC end plate on the granite table guaranties higher precision.

19/10 2019 Pairing of the mid layer fins that will hold the electronic sensors . Each of the two separate pairs consists of one conducting and one insulating nil fin bridged together with glue.

9/10 2019 "BriefcaseSetup15" containing the complete DynamicLink HardWare and SoftWare is updated. As the name indicates, it's all contained in a briefcase

26/9 2019 Badly glued parts successfully separated including guiding pins

29/8 2019 A precision totally flat polished granite plates"glue-table" is ready
First 2 attempts were failures due to wrong choice of glue and bad distance. Learning experience. But the two plate high precision glue table is a hit!

3/8 2019 First Revolving Shutter is glued. The balsa "Revolving Shutter" mid layer was sanded down to 1,7mm thickness .
Maybe we will need to add thickness when gluing the boundary shells to allow for a frictionless Revolving Shutter spin while turning its "Work Generating Volume".
No balancing of the Revolving Shutter was done. We were not able to slim down the counter weights in Motala. By that we are, unfortunately, limited to do low temperature slow speed testing with these type of Revolving Shutters.
The glueing seem successful, but the screw-tightening of the "sandwich" Revolving Shutter has to be done later hoping that the assembled layers Alu-Balsa-Alu will form a Revolving Shutter less than 6mm thick.

27/7 2019 Second integrated endplate is successfully glued. Started to grind the Revolving Shutter mid layer.

3/7 2019 First integrated endplate is successfully glued. The program "thermist_Pt500" is updated to v.15 with higher accuracy and double MCP3208 A/D over SPI that will report 10 planned thermistors.

21/6 2019 All mechanical parts are built (31/5 2019) and transported to Motala together with the DynamicLink electronics in its briefcase.

1/8 2017 Planned presentation tour in Sweden is cancelled. The Lab Model version 1 is totally stuck. Impossible to turn. Do we need to build a new one?

11/5 2017 The Lab Model version 1 is tight and revolving. The DynamicLink electronics controls the stepper motor. Still hear some friction but it turns.
First experiments are very promising.

Click this link to see parts and to download CAD files in .dxf format.

Click this link to go to the nilsinside PROJECT page.

updated by KITS